Starter - Intro & Sustainable Man
TOK Point: Watch the second video - Externalities. Study this simple model of economics and annotate onto it all of the 'Externalities' that are covered in the video. Now read this G20 2014 article and summarise the issue of the model of economics that doesn't include these vital natural processes.
Atmosphere & Change
Objective: To be able to describe the functioning of the atmospheric system in terms of the energy balance between solar and long wave radiation.
Starter: Watch the YouTube video to the right.
IB Essay Killer Opening Statement (copy and complete)
The atmosphere is an _______ system, receiving radiation from both the sun and the ________. The energy of the earth is very _______ but it does have an effect in particular in urban climates. Incoming solar radiation is referred to as ________________
The main energy that drives all of our weather systems and our climate comes from the sun. The vast majority of this energy is absorbed at the __________ whereas energy is generally lost in the ________ regions. However, this energy is ______________ to higher latitudes by wind and air ________________.
Choose from this key word list
circulations open insolation earth equator redistributed polar small
Task 1 - Key Words - Copy the key words to the right into your revision booklet for this unit.
The Atmospheric Energy Budget
The earth and its atmosphere constantly receives solar radiation but there are long and short term variations in the earth's climate & recent decades have seen the general rise in global temperatures. This is global warming and will be covered a little later on in the unit.
Task 2 - Scroll down to the PDF embedded document beneath. Make a copy of the diagram on the first page and use the text underneath it to make annotated (around the diagram) notes on how the energy budget works and transfers at each stage.
Task 3 - Click here to be taken to Cool Geography. Read the information carefully on the page before completing the four activities in full, at the bottom of the page. Make copies of the maps and diagrams where necessary.
Task 4 - Complete the 10 mark question using the work sheet beneath.
Short-wave radiation is the energy from the sun that enters the earth's atmosphere (very short wavelengths) such as ultraviolet and visible light. Generally emitted by hot bodies.
Long-wave Radiation is the energy leaving the earth as infrared radiation at low energy and contains less energy than shortwave radiation. Generally emitted by cold bodies.
Convection is the transfer of heat by movement of a gas or liquid
Conduction is the transfer of heat by contact
Greenhouse Effect - Process where water vapour, C02, CH4 & CFCs allow SW energy from the sun to pass through the atmposhere and heat up the earth. However some of the resultant LW radiation is trapped leading to a heating of the earth.
Enhanced Greenhouse Effect occurs as a result of increased quantities of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere owing to human activities and their impact on these fragile atmospheric systems.
External Force 1 - Albedo
Albedo is the fraction of Sun’s radiation reflected from a surface. The term has its origins from the Latin word albus, meaning “white”.
It is quantified as the proportion, or percentage of solar radiation of all wavelengths reflected by a body or surface to the amount incident upon it. An ideal white body has an albedo of 100% and an ideal black body, 0%.
Starter: Make a note of the definition of Albedo above and explain its changes with relation to the surfaces shown in table 1* (below right) using this worksheet.
Task 3 - Make a copy of the map* below and complete the following IB question: You can use this worksheet if needed
With reference to the map, describe and explain the global variations in Albedo. (5)
* Click on the images to enlarge
Video Explanation: Polar ice reflects light from the sun. As this ice begins to melt, less sunlight gets reflected into space. It is instead absorbed into the oceans and land, raising the overall temperature, and fueling further melting. This results in a positive feedback loop called ice albedo feedback, which causes the loss of the sea ice to be self-compounding. The more it disappears, the more likely it is to continue to disappear.
More information here on Zenith Angle - Table 1
External Force 2 - Sun Spot Activity
Task 4 - Conduct some research into sun spots and find out how they are linked to the amount of short wave energy that the earth receives.
Click on the graph below right to enlarge and take a copy before answering the questions below.
Task 5 - Using the graph (below right), describe the pattern of sunspot activity between 1960 and 2010.
Task 6 - Is there a relationship between sunspot activity and global temperatures (don't forget to look for anomalies)
Task 7 - Click on this link from the BBC and print out and read the article carefully.
i. What is the Maunder Minimum?
ii. What is blocking?
iii. Outline the impacts of sunspots on continental Europe and its populations.
Exam Practice Homework - Click here* for three typical IB Geography Paper 1 questions on what you have learnt so far. Complete these and then hand in to your teacher for marking
*www.geographyalltheway.com subscription required.
*www.geographyalltheway.com subscription required.